In a restaurant, forecasting uses data to predict how much the company can expect in sales over a given period of time. At the macroeconomic level, sales forecasting helps a company set growth objectives and determine its overall profits and revenues. At the microeconomic level, forecasting helps a restaurant plan inventory orders and how many employees need to work each shift to prepare and sell food. An inaccurate sales forecast can result in wasted funds on labor, inventory, and even operating expenses for the restaurant.
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Food service managers work in restaurants, hotels, school cafeterias, and other establishments where food is prepared and served. They tend to work in the evenings, on weekends and on holidays. Work is often busy and dealing with dissatisfied customers can be stressful. Food service managers typically need a high school diploma and several years of work experience in the food service industry.
Some receive additional training at community colleges, technical or vocational schools, culinary schools, or 4-year universities. Around 45,000 vacancies are projected for food service managers each year, on average, over the decade. Many of these vacancies are expected to be due to the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or leave the workforce, for example, to retire. Explore employment and wage resources by state and area for food service managers.
Compare the job obligations, education, job growth, and salary of food service managers with similar occupations. Learn more about food service managers by visiting additional resources, such as O*NET, a source on the key characteristics of workers and occupations. They direct staff to ensure that customers are satisfied with their dining experience and manage the business to ensure that it works efficiently. Managers coordinate the activities of kitchen and dining staff to ensure that customers receive adequate and timely service.
They monitor orders in the kitchen and, if necessary, work with the chef to resolve service delays. Food service managers are responsible for all company functions related to employees, including overseeing staffing and scheduling workers for each shift. During busy periods, managers can streamline service by helping to serve customers, process payments, or clean tables. Managers are also responsible for cleaning and maintaining equipment and facilities in order to comply with sanitary and sanitary regulations.
For example, they can arrange for garbage collection, pest control, and intensive cleaning when the dining room and kitchen aren't in use. In addition, managers have financial responsibilities that include budgeting, ensuring cash flow, and monitoring operating costs. They can set sales targets and determine promotional items. Most managers prepare payroll and manage employee records.
They can also review or complete documentation related to licenses, taxes and salaries, and unemployment compensation. Although they sometimes assign these tasks to an assistant manager or an accountant, most managers are responsible for the accuracy of business records. Some managers add up cash and proof of payment and keep them in a safe place. They can also check that ovens, grills and other equipment are properly cleaned and secured and that the establishment is locked when operations close.
Full-service restaurants (those with table service) may have a management team that includes a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The work of food service managers is often busy, and dealing with dissatisfied customers can be stressful. Kitchens are often cluttered and full of objects and hazardous areas, such as hot ovens and slippery floors. As a result, injuries pose a risk to food service managers, who can spend part of their time helping in the kitchen.
Common hazards include slips, falls and cuts. To reduce these risks, managers often wear non-slip shoes while in the kitchen. Most food service managers work full time and some work more than 40 hours a week. Work hours vary and may include early mornings, evenings, weekends and holidays.
They may be called on short notice. Managers of food service establishments or cafeterias in schools, factories, or office buildings may be more likely to work traditional business hours. Food service managers typically need a high school diploma and several years of experience in the food service industry working as cooks, waiters, or waitresses, or supervisors of food preparation and service workers. Some receive additional training at a community college, vocational or technical school, culinary school, or 4-year university.
Food service managers typically need a high school diploma, but the education requirements for individual positions can range from lacking a formal educational credential to a college degree. Employers may prefer to hire candidates who have post-secondary education, especially for jobs in upscale restaurants and hotels. Some food service companies, hotels, and restaurant chains recruit management apprentices from university hospitality or food service management programs. These programs may require participants to work on internships and have experiences related to the food industry in order to graduate.
Many colleges and universities offer a degree in restaurant and hospitality management or in institutional food service management, which may be part of a personal and culinary services program. Another degree field that can be useful for managers is business. In addition, many community colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions offer associate degree programs. Some culinary schools offer restaurant management programs with courses designed for those who want to start and manage their own restaurant.
Most programs offer instruction in nutrition, sanitation, and food preparation, as well as courses in accounting, business law, and management. Some programs combine face-to-face and practical study with internships. Most food service managers start working in related jobs, such as cooks, waiters and waitresses, or supervisors of food preparation and service workers. They often spend years working in the food service industry, gaining experience and learning the necessary skills before being promoted to management positions.
Food service managers typically receive hands-on training for at least 1 month. Topics that will be covered during this training may include food preparation, sanitation, safety, company policies, personnel management, and record keeping. Some states and localities require food service managers to have a food safety certification. For more information, contact your local or state health department.
While certification isn't always mandatory, managers can obtain food protection manager (FPMC) certification by passing a food safety exam. The United States National Standards Institute accredits institutions that offer the FPMC. Food service managers must understand every aspect of the restaurant business, including how to budget supplies, comply with regulations, and manage workers. Food service managers must give clear orders to staff and be able to effectively transmit information to employees and customers.
Food service managers must be courteous and attentive when dealing with customers. Managers must establish good relationships with staff to maintain a productive work environment. Managers have many different responsibilities, such as scheduling and supervising staff, budgeting, and maintaining financial records. The larger the establishment, the more complex its work will be.
Managers often work long shifts and sometimes spend entire evenings actively helping to serve customers. Managers must be able to resolve personnel issues and customer-related issues. Food service managers should oversee the preparation and service of food, as people will continue to dine out, buy takeout meals, and receive food at their homes or workplaces. However, more dining establishments are expected to rely on chefs and head cooks instead of hiring more food service managers, which should limit employment growth in this occupation.
The Employment and Occupational Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for more than 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the country as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. The following links go to the OEWS data maps on employment and wages by state and area. CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metropolitan area.
There are links in the menu on the left to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metropolitan area. There's also a salary information tool to search for salaries by zip code. This table shows a list of occupations with functions similar to those of food service managers. Waiters mix drinks and serve them directly to customers or through waiters.
Chefs and head cooks oversee the daily preparation of food in restaurants and other places where food is served. Accommodation managers ensure that guests who travel have a pleasant experience at their establishment with accommodations. They also ensure that the business operates efficiently and cost-effectively. Sales managers lead the sales teams of organizations.
Waiters and waitresses take orders and serve food and beverages to customers in gastronomic establishments. For more information on food protection manager certification, visit the U.S. National Standards Institute. For more information on food service managers, visit the Hotel and Food Service Management Society of the National Restaurant Association.
The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including the tools and equipment they use and the degree of supervision. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the expected level of physical activity, and the typical hours worked. You can also analyze the major industries that employed the occupation.
This tab can also describe part-time work opportunities, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab may include information about education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helped to enter or work in the occupation. The Payments tab describes typical incomes and how workers in the occupation are compensated: annual wages, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses.
Within each occupation, earnings vary depending on experience, responsibility, performance, seniority and geographical area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with salaries in the main industries that employ the occupation. It does not include the salaries of self-employed workers, agricultural workers or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Employment and Occupational Wage Statistics Survey (OEWS), the source of BLS wage data in the OOH. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Employment and Wage Occupational Statistics (OEWS) program, state projection data from Central Projections, and occupational information from CareerOneStop from the Department of Labor.
The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or the decline in employment and, in some cases, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job offers. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share roles, skills, interests, education, or training similar to the occupation included in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions and other organizations that can provide additional information about the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).
Additional training (after employment) is needed to acquire competence in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience that employers often consider necessary or that is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. Changes in supply and demand for various foods can cause you to put your sales forecast back on the drawing board.
Inventory forecasting works by helping companies achieve a balance between having too much cash tied up in inventory and having enough inventory to meet demand. The software eliminates most of the time-consuming manual work of forecasting sales, and can even create a perfect schedule based on projected sales based on forecasts. After you complete each sales forecast, set it aside and review it again once you've finished the time period to see how accurate your sales forecasts and inventory projections are. The basic premise of inventory forecasting is to analyze the historical demand for your products and forecast the quantity you will need to meet customer wishes.